Calvert’s Extractives Industry Experts 

Bennett Freeman

Senior Vice President for Sustainability Research and Policy,
Calvert Asset Management Company, Inc.

As Senior Vice President for Sustainability Research and Policy, Bennett Freeman has led the social, environmental and governance research, analysis, policy and shareholder advocacy work of one of the largest family of sustainable and responsible mutual funds in the U.S. since April 2006.  For a decade, he has also been one of the leading innovators and practitioners in the world on corporate responsibility and human rights, especially in the extractives sectors.

From 2007 through May 2009, Mr. Freeman represented Oxfam and the Publish What You Pay Coalition on the Board of Directors of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), the global framework that brings together governments, companies and civil society to advance revenue transparency as well as good governance and sustainable development in countries significantly reliant on oil, gas and/or mining.  He currently serves on the Governing Board of the Revenue Watch Institute, which is dedicated to promoting the same goals from a civil society platform.  He also chairs the board of EG Justice – Toward a Just Equatorial Guinea, an advocacy NGO that promotes progress on human rights and the rule of law in that oil rich but repressive and corrupt small West African country.   He is also on the Business and Economic Relations Group of Amnesty International USA, for which he led a successful human rights dialogue with ExxonMobil from 2003-2006.

As an independent consultant in 2002, Mr. Freeman co-authored the first-ever human rights impact assessment (HRIA) of any large extractive project in the world (for the BP Tangguh LNG project in West Papua, Indonesia).  That work is a frequently-cited model for HRIAs in the extractive sectors and beyond, and remains unsurpassed in its scope and operational influence.

Finally and most significantly, while serving as Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights and Labor from 1999 to early 2001, Mr. Freeman led the development of the Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights.  The Voluntary Principles are the first human rights standard forged by governments, companies and NGOs for the extractive sectors operating in zones of conflict and the first operational standard for any sector addressing corporate responsibility in zones of conflict.  Originally convened as a multi-stakeholder dialogue by the U.S. and UK governments with major oil and mining companies, human rights NGOs and a trade union confederation, the Voluntary Principles were launched in December 2000 following a year of intensive negotiations.  In cooperation among companies, governments, security forces and civil society, the global Voluntary Principles process is now focusing on implementation in conflict zones in Nigeria, Indonesia, Colombia and a number of other countries in Africa, Southeast Asia, the Andean and Caspian regions. 

Paul Bugala

Sustainability Anaylst, Extractive Industries,
Calvert Asset Management Company, Inc.

As Sustainability Analyst for Extractive Industries, Paul Bugala leads environment, social and governance (ESG) research and advocacy for the oil, gas, mining, timber, jewelry, and paper industries for Calvert Investments. In addition to being responsible for extractive industries research for one of the largest families of sustainable and responsible mutual funds in the United States, Bugala leads SAGE (Sustainability Achieved through Greater Engagement) advocacy with eight of the 16 enhanced engagement holdings in the Calvert Large Cap Value Fund.

Before joining Calvert in September 2008, Bugala served in several research and advocacy roles in the Extractive Industries Program at Oxfam America, based in its Washington, DC office. His work at Oxfam America included research and community capacity building in West Africa and Latin American; support for advocacy for regulatory reforms such as the Extractive Industries Transparency Disclosure Act (EITDA) and Economic Collaboration of West African States (ECOWAS) Regional Mining Code; and campaign and educational efforts including the No Dirty Gold, Right to Know/Right to Decide and CHANGE Mining initiatives.

While at Oxfam America, Mr. Bugala also provided oil, gas and mining industry analysis in support of the Extractive Industries Program Officers in Cambodia, El Salvador, Peru, and Senegal. In addition, he wrote, contributed to or edited the following reports.

  • Metals Mining and Sustainable Development in Central America (March 2009 – editor)
  • Golden Rules: Making the case for responsible mining (February 2008 – co-author)
  • Transparency Begins at Home: An Assessment of United States Revenue Transparency and Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative Requirements (June 2006 – author)
  • Dirty Metals Report: Mining, Communities and the Environment (February 2004 – co-author)

In his roles at Oxfam America, Mr. Bugala spoke widely on the mining industry’s impact on the environment and human and economic rights at conferences and at universities, including the Colorado School of Mines where his engagement led to the school’s first class on the theory and practice of Social License to Operate.

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